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小升初英语语法大全

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一、 名 词
  表示某一事物,有具体的和抽象的之分。分为可数名词和不可数名词。
? ? 强调:不可数名词都默认为单数,所以总是用is或者was;最好不要根据some、any、a lot of等词去作判断,以免受误导。
  1、可数名词如何变“复数形式”:
  a.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds ;读音:清辅音后读[s],浊辅音和
  元音后读[z]。
  b.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches ;读音:[iz]。
  c.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries ;读音:[z]。
  d.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives ,thief-thieves;读音:[z]。
  e.以“o”结尾的词,分两种情况
  1)有生命的+es 读音:[z] 如:mango-mangoes tomato-tomatoes hero-heroes
  2) 无生命的+s 读音:[z] 如:photo-photos radio-radios
  f. 不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen,
  snowman-snowmen, mouse-mice, child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish,
  people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
  2、不可数名词没有复数。如果要计算不可数名词所表达的数量,就得在数词和不可数名词之间加上“量词+of”。例如:a glass of water, a piece of paper, a bottle of juice
  判断步骤:
  ↗如是am、is或was→原形
  读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看be动词
  ↘如是are或were→加s或es
  练一练:
  1、写出下列各词的复数。
  I _________ him _________ this _______ her ______ watch _______ mango_______child _______ photo ________ diary ______ day________ foot________ dress ________ tooth_______
  sheep ______ box_______ strawberry _____ thief _______ engineer______ peach______
  sandwich ______ man______ woman_______ leaf_______ people________
  2、用所给名词的正确形式填空。
  (1)Are there two ( box ) on the table?
  (2)I can see some ( people ) in the cinema.
  (3)How many ( day ) are there in a week?
  (4)Here’re five ( bottle ) of ( juice ) for you.
  (5)This ( violin ) is hers. Those ( grape ) are over there.
  二、冠 词
  冠词是一种虚词,不能独立使用,通常放在名词的前面,分为“不定冠词”和“定冠词”两种。
  1、不定冠词:a、an。用在单数名词前,表示“一个,一件……”。an用在以元音“音素”开头的单词前。如:
  an e-mail, an orange, an old man, an English watch, an hour…
  2、定冠词:the。用在单数或者复数名词前。the没有具体意思,有时翻译为这、那。它的基本用法:
  (1)用来表示特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。如:The map on the wall is new.
  (2)表示说话者双方都知道的人或事物。如:Look at the picture, please.
  (3)表示再次提到前面谈过的人或事物。如:This is a stamp. The stamp is beautiful.
  (4)用在表示世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the sun太阳 the moon月亮 the earth地球
  (5)用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。如:the Great Wall长城
  (6)用在江河、湖海等专有名词前。如:the Changjiang River长江
  (7)此外,序数词、形容词最高级、乐器名称等词前面和一些习惯用语中一般都用定冠词the。如:
  the first day, the best boy, play the piano, in the same class
  确定用a、an还是the时可根据汉语意思。
  练一练:
  1、用a或an填空。
  ??____ “U” ____ ice-cream ____ goalkeeper ____ teapot ____apple
  ____office ____English book ____umbrella ____unit ____hour
  2、根据需要,填写冠词a,an或the。
  (1)Who is ____girl behind ____tree?
  (2) ____old man has two children, ____ son and ____daughter.
  (3)This is ____ orange. ____ orange is Lucy’s.
  (4)He likes playing ____guitar. We have ____same hobby.
  (5)We all had____good time last Sunday.

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